In the late 1970s, Higaonna Morio Sensei and Liam Keeley interviewed three of the first generation of Karateka on the mainland: Konishi Sensei (founder of Shindo Jizen ryu), Otsuka Sensei (founder of Wado ryu), and Gima Sensei (the first person Funakoshi Gichin Sensei graded to Shodan on mainland Japan). These articles were subsequently published in Terry O’Neill’s Fighting Arts International. These three articles can be downloaded below.

Interview with Konishi Sensei

Interview with Otsuka Sensei

Interview with Gima Sensei